As I wrote last week, we are working on how to support users in sharing their study materials with one another, regardless of whether they have iOS or Android devices. I want to present some additional background about our goals and our approach. First, we want to enable the sharing of study materials entirely through the apps we are building, and in as simple a manner as possible. We do not want users to have to use their desktop or laptop computers as intermediary devices, or have to switch to email, another app, or a web page to share something. This means that the file sharing protocols must all be accessible programmatically from within our apps. We also want users to fully own and manage their study materials, without us keeping any copies of them or other related data on some server that we manage. Each user’s data should be entirely under their own control, so they can be comfortable that their data is not being used in any unknown ways or for any purposes other than what they want. Additionally, sharing can be useful to users by themselves. Users who own more than one mobile device — for example, an iPad and an Android phone — may want to use our apps on each device, and have all of their study materials synced between those different devices. And whenever users upgrade to new mobile devices, they need a straightforward way to transfer all of their study materials from the old device to the new one.

With these goals in mind, we settled on Google Drive as the most promising technology to use. Google Drive also stood out because of the continuing surge in the use of Chromebooks and related Google services by students in elementary and secondary schools, especially in the United States. This is important since we are looking to have our apps used by b’nai mitzvah students and their tutors. If students are already familiar with Google services like Google Drive, it will make using our apps that much more straightforward for them. A recent article in the New York Times noted that, “In 2016, Chromebooks accounted for 58 percent of mobile devices shipped to primary and secondary schools in the United States,” and that “more than half the nation’s primary- and secondary-school students — more than 30 million children — use Google education apps like Gmail and Docs.” Also, Google Drive is free for anyone to use, with generous data limits.

So we are now deep into the technical details of accessing the Google Drive functionality within our Android and iOS apps. This is actually more complicated in Android than in iOS, because in iOS, there is only one way to do things. In Android, there are multiple supporting technologies, and it requires some extra effort to determine which approach will give us the right services for our needs. And, of course, newer versions of Android work differently than older versions, so that also has to be taken into account. Further, on Android, a user is basically already signed in to Google, so we want to take advantage of that and streamline the process for the user. That means doing more behind the scenes programming to make everything “just happen.” And that’s where we are this week.

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