In addition to laying out the Torah text according to a standard set of columns, line breaks and internal breaks, and accurately displaying all of the vowels and trop (cantillation marks), we also want to distinguish between the two different pronunciations of the sheva and kamatz vowels. A sheva can either be a sheva na (moving sheva) or a sheva nach (resting sheva). The sheva na is pronounced as a short “e”, while the sheva nach is not pronounced at all. A qamats can either be a qamats qatan (small qamatz) or a qamatz gadol (big qamatz). The qamats qatan is pronounced as the “o” in boring while the qamats gadol is pronounced as the “a” in father. To support a Torah reader’s accuracy, it is very helpful if the study text that the reader is using visually distinguishes among these forms.

As you probably know, there is no single standard way to display these different sheva and qamats forms, and many texts do not concern themselves with doing so at all. Also, even those Hebrew fonts that include vowels and cantillation marks often do not support additional sheva and qamats forms, either. Today, most fonts that are being developed are Unicode fonts; Unicode is now the standard for representing and handling text in the world’s many languages and writing systems. In 2005, Unicode added the qamats qatan as a distinct character, as well as three other Biblical Hebrew characters (lower dot, nun hafukha, and atnah hafukh). Because the qamats qatan is now part of the standard, it is being supported in more fonts, and in many fonts is shown as a qamats gadol but with a longer and perhaps modified vertical stem. However, the sheva na is not a separate Unicode character, so it is sometimes indicated as a bolder, bigger sheva nach or alternately by a mark of some sort above the letter it serves. There are many who would like to see the sheva na added to Unicode, to allow for standardization. For example, see this proposal from last year.

Since we are doing our own font development, we have included both the qamats qatan and sheva na in our Traditional Hebrew font. Here is how we display them:

In our tikkun app, we plan to include the sheva na and qamats qatan in all of the Torah text initially, and will add that information to other parts of our library of texts as we go along.